Effects of Loading Rate on the Relaxation and Recovery Ability of an Epoxy-Based Shape Memory PolymerReport as inadecuate


Effects of Loading Rate on the Relaxation and Recovery Ability of an Epoxy-Based Shape Memory Polymer


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1

Department of Engineering, St. Mary’s University, San Antonio, TX 78228, USA

2

Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base WPAFB, Dayton, OH 45433, USA

3

Multi-Scale Composite and Polymers Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, OH, 45469, USA





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Mehrdad Massoudi

Abstract The majority of aerospace structural composites use thermoset resins for their processing flexibility, temperature capability, and environmental durability. In this study, the recovery behavior of Veriflex-E, an epoxy-based, thermosetting, thermally-triggered shape memory polymer SMP resin, is investigated in glassy 25 °C and rubbery 130 °C states, as a function of shape memory cycles, and as a means to evaluate its potential as a resin for a shape memory composite. At 25 °C, Veriflex-E exhibits a promising high elastic modulus and a positive, nonlinear strain rate sensitivity in monotonic loading. At 130 °C, the strain rate sensitivity in monotonic loading decreases. Stress relaxation after storage in the deformed temporary state and subsequent shape recovery is of particular interest, a challenge to measure, and has not been widely reported for SMPs. The current experimental program measures the influence of strain rate changes in the 10−4–10−2 s−1 range on the stress relaxation response of the material, as well as on the strain recovery behavior at both 25 °C and 130 °C. As expected, the post-relaxation strain is larger with faster loading. Unexpectedly, the total strain recovered after shape memory cycling is more similar to the low temperature deformation. Overall, the results suggest that, while being influenced by both the loading rate and the test temperature, Veriflex-E is a promising candidate for a shape memory composite which could enable adaptive structures. View Full-Text

Keywords: shape memory polymer; stress relaxation; recovery; viscous response shape memory polymer; stress relaxation; recovery; viscous response





Author: Amber J.W. McClung 1,* , Gyaneshwar P. Tandon 2,3 and Jeffery W. Baur 2

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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