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1

Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, School of Information Technology and Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia

2

Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia





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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Abstract The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage TES or Electrical Storage Systems ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge-discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from -whole of year-, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

Keywords: concentrated solar power; energy storage systems; thermal energy storage; optimisation concentrated solar power; energy storage systems; thermal energy storage; optimisation





Author: Luigi Cirocco 1,* , Martin Belusko 2, Frank Bruno 2, John Boland 1 and Peter Pudney 1

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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