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 Quantum Version of Gauge Invariance and Nucleon Internal Structure


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The conflict between cononical commutation relation and gauge invariance, which both the momentum and angular momentum of quark and gluon should satisfy, is clarified. The quantum version of gauge invariance is studied. The gauge independence of the matrix elements of quark momentum and angular momentum operators between physical states are proved. We suggest to use the canonical quark momentum and angular momentum distributions to describe the nucleon internal structure in order to establish an internal consistent description of hadron spectroscopy and hadron structure. The same problem for the atomic spectroscopy and structure is discussed.



Author: Fan Wang; Wei-Min Sun; Xiao-Fu Lü

Source: https://archive.org/







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