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 Quantum Hall effect and the topological number in graphene


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Recently unusual integer quantum Hall effect was observed in graphene in which the Hall conductivity is quantized as $\sigma {xy}=\pm 2, \pm 6, \pm 10,

. \times \frac{e^2}{h}$, where $e$ is the electron charge and $h$ is the Planck constant. %\cite{Novoselov2005,Zheng2005}, %although it can be explained in the argument of massless Dirac fermions, To explain this we consider the energy structure as a function of magnetic field the Hofstadter butterfly diagram on the honeycomb lattice and the Streda formula for Hall conductivity. The quantized Hall conductivity is obtained to be odd integer, $\pm1, \pm3, \pm5,

.$ times two spin degrees of freedom when a uniform magnetic field is as high as 30T for example. When the system is anisotropic and described by the generalized honeycomb lattice, Hall conductivity can be quantized to be any integer number. We also compare the results with those for the square lattice under extremely strong magnetic field.



Author: Yasumasa Hasegawa; Mahito Kohmoto

Source: https://archive.org/







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