Vol 5: Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer.Report as inadecuate



 Vol 5: Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer.


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This article is from Frontiers in Immunology, volume 5.AbstractChronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma GC. Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors PRRs are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors TLRs TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors NLRs NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3, a C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN, and retinoic acid-inducible gene RIG-I-like receptors RIG-I and MDA-5, are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14 and NLR NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8 signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and-or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy.



Author: Castano-Rodriguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

Source: https://archive.org/







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