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Journal of Biomedical Science

, 17:92

First Online: 07 December 2010Received: 21 August 2010Accepted: 07 December 2010

Abstract

Rapid repair of the denuded alveolar surface after injury is a key to survival. The respiratory tract contains several sources of endogenous adult stem cells residing within the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neuroendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, and within the alveolar epithelial surface, which contribute to the repair of the airway wall. Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells circulating in blood are also involved in tracheal regeneration. However, an organism is frequently incapable of repairing serious damage and defects of the respiratory tract resulting from acute trauma, lung cancers, and chronic pulmonary and airway diseases. Therefore, replacement of the tracheal tissue should be urgently considered. The shortage of donor trachea remains a major obstacle in tracheal transplantation. However, implementation of tissue engineering and stem cell therapy-based approaches helps to successfully solve this problem. To date, huge progress has been achieved in tracheal bioengineering. Several sources of stem cells have been used for transplantation and airway reconstitution in animal models with experimentally induced tracheal defects. Most tracheal tissue engineering approaches use biodegradable three-dimensional scaffolds, which are important for neotracheal formation by promoting cell attachment, cell redifferentiation, and production of the extracellular matrix. The advances in tracheal bioengineering recently resulted in successful transplantation of the world-s first bioengineered trachea. Current trends in tracheal transplantation include the use of autologous cells, development of bioactive cell-free scaffolds capable of supporting activation and differentiation of host stem cells on the site of injury, with a future perspective of using human native sites as micro-niche for potentiation of the human body-s site-specific response by sequential adding, boosting, permissive, and recruitment impulses.

List of abbreviationsARFalternate reading frame, an alternative reading frame product of CDKN2A locus

a tumor suppressor gene

CD45cluster of differentiation 45

CD45antigen

protein tyrosine receptor-type phosphatase C

CDKNcyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

CK5cytokeratin 5

CXCR4CXC chemokine receptor 4

3Dthree-dimensional

ECMextracellular matrix

EGFepidermial growth factor

ESCembryonic stem cell

FGFfibroblast growth factor

HAhyaluronic acid

hyaluronate

hAFSChuman amniotic fluid stem cell

INK4acyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4

iPSinducible pluripotent stem cell

Klf4Krueppel-like factor 4, a key transcription factor in maintaining pluripotency

MMPmatrix metalloproteinase

MSCmesenchymal stem cell

Nanoga key transcription factor in maintaining pluripotency

Oct4Octamer-4, a homeodomain transcription factor maintaining pluripotency

SCstem cell

SCIDsevere combined immunodeficiency

Sox2SRY sex determining region Y-box 2, a transcription factor

TGFtransforming growth factor

Trp53transformation-related protein 53

a tumor suppressor gene

UBCumbilical blood cord

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1423-0127-17-92 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Dimitry A Chistiakov

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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