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Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 157–167

First Online: 26 May 2009Received: 22 March 2009Accepted: 04 May 2009

Abstract

Fine PM2.2 and coarse PM2.2–10 particles concurrently collected in urban Hanoi and rural Lucnam areas were analyzed for ionic and elemental compositions to provide input for PMF receptor modeling of emission sources in the Red River Delta RRD, a key economic development region in Vietnam. Long-range transport LRT aerosol, coal fly ash from major coal-fired plants in RRD, and marine aerosols are regional sources, which explain the minor variability of the mass concentrations of fine particles across the region. Local sources include soil-resuspended road dust, local coal fly ash, and biomass burning. Soil-resuspended road dust is the largest source component of coarse particles at the two sites. It is more abundant in Hanoi than in Lucnam reflecting the urban–rural contrast in traffic and construction works. Receptor models reveal the incorporation of secondary sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium into the various primary particles, i.e., soot, minerals, soil organic matter, and sea salt. Soot particles from LRT carry the largest amounts of sulfate and ammonium mass concentrations measured at the two sites. Based on receptor models, the yields and possible chemical forms of secondary sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in different types of primary particles can be inferred.

KeywordsPIXE Ion chromatography Positive matrix factorization Primary and secondary constituents  Download fulltext PDF



Author: V. T. Bac - P. D. Hien

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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