Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean DaphniaReport as inadecuate




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Frontiers in Zoology

, 5:11

Daphnia: the companion papers for the genome sequence

Abstract

BackgroundEicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase COX pathway; the lipoxygenase LOX pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates.

ResultsHere, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna Crustacea: Branchiopoda together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids.

ConclusionWe have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1742-9994-5-11 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Lars-Henrik Heckmann - Richard M Sibly - Martijn JTN Timmermans - Amanda Callaghan

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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