Possible immunotherapeutic potentiation with D-Fraction in prostate cancer cellsReport as inadecuate




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Journal of Hematology and Oncology

, 1:25

First Online: 04 December 2008Received: 31 October 2008Accepted: 04 December 2008

Abstract

BackgroundProstate cancer remains the most common malignancy among elderly men and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Although several conventional therapies are currently available, they have a low efficacy and the more effective treatment modalities need to be established. Interferons IFNs are one of such options known as immunotherapy and demonstrated their antitumor effects on certain cancer types. Yet such antitumor activity should be improved or potentiated to have the satisfactory outcomes. In fact, combination therapy has been proposed as an alternative approach and is being underway in human and animal studies. Accordingly, we studied whether the combination of IFN-α and D-fraction PDF, a bioactive mushroom extract, might potentiate anticancer activity of IFN-α in prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro.

ResultsPotential effects of recombinant IFN-α2b 0–100,000 IU-ml, PDF 0–1,000 μg-ml, or their combinations were assessed on the growth of PC-3 cells at 72 h. Cell cycle analysis using a flow cytometer and Western blot analysis were performed to explore antiproliferative mechanism of these agents. The dose-dependent study showed that IFN-α2b up to 20,000 20 K IU-ml had no significant effects, but >60% growth reduction was attained ≤50 K IU-ml. Similarly, PDF showed no effects up to 250 μg-ml but ~65% growth reduction was seen at 1,000 μg-ml. When IFN-α2b and PDF were combined, a relatively low concentration 10 K IU-ml of IFN-α2b and PDF 250 μg-ml resulted in a ~65% growth reduction. This was accompanied by a G1 cell cycle arrest, indicated by cell cycle analysis. Western blots also revealed that the G1-specific cell cycle regulators, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, had been significantly >60% down-regulated in IFN-PDF-treated cells.

ConclusionThe combination of IFN-α2b 10 K IU-ml and PDF 250 μg-ml is capable of inducing a ~65% reduction in PC-3 cell growth. This appears to be due to a synergistic potentiation of two agents, leading to a G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, it is conceivable that PDF may potentiate IFN-α2b activity, improving immunotherapy for prostate cancer.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1756-8722-1-25 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Paul Pyo - Brandon Louie - Srinivas Rajamahanty - Muhammad Choudhury - Sensuke Konno

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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