Evidence for a wide extra-astrocytic distribution of S100B in human brainReport as inadecuate




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BMC Neuroscience

, 8:2

First Online: 02 January 2007Received: 12 August 2006Accepted: 02 January 2007

Abstract

BackgroundS100B is considered an astrocytic in-situ marker and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid CSF or serum are often used as biomarker for astrocytic damage or dysfunction. However, studies on S100B in the human brain are rare. Thus, the distribution of S100B was studied by immunohistochemistry in adult human brains to evaluate its cell-type specificity.

ResultsContrary to glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP, which selectively labels astrocytes and shows only faint ependymal immunopositivity, a less uniform staining pattern was seen in the case of S100B. Cells with astrocytic morphology were primarily stained by S100B in the human cortex, while only 20% 14–30% or 14% 7–35% of all immunopositive cells showed oligodendrocytic morphology in the dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal cortices, respectively. In the white matter, however, most immunostained cells resembled oligodendrocytes frontal: 75% 57–85%; temporal: 73% 59–87%; parietal: 79% 62–89%; corpus callosum: 93% 86–97%. S100B was also found in ependymal cells, the choroid plexus epithelium, vascular endothelial cells, lymphocytes, and several neurones. Anti-myelin basic protein MBP immunolabelling showed an association of S100B with myelinated fibres, whereas GFAP double staining revealed a distinct subpopulation of cells with astrocytic morphology, which solely expressed S100B but not GFAP. Some of these cells showed co-localization of S100B and A2B5 and may be characterized as O2A glial progenitor cells. However, S100B was not detected in microglial cells, as revealed by double-immunolabelling with HLA-DR.

ConclusionS100B is localized in many neural cell-types and is less astrocyte-specific than GFAP. These are important results in order to avoid misinterpretation in the identification of normal and pathological cell types in situ and in clinical studies since S100B is continuously used as an astrocytic marker in animal models and various human diseases.

AbbreviationsCSFcerebrospinal fluid

DLPFdorsolateral prefrontal

GAP-43growth-associated protein 43

GFAPglial fibrillary acidic protein

IL-1βinterleukin1β

iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthase

MBPmyelin basic protein

MOGmyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

PKCprotein kinase C

RAGEreceptor for advanced glycation end products

S.D.standard deviation

TNF-αtumour necrosis factor α

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2202-8-2 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Johann Steiner - Hans-Gert Bernstein - Hendrik Bielau - Annika Berndt - Ralf Brisch - Christian Mawrin - Gerburg Keilhoff -

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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