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Abstract: Mean-field methods are a very powerful tool for investigating weaklyinteracting many-body systems in many branches of physics. In particular, theydescribe with excellent accuracy trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. A generic,but difficult question concerns the relation between the symmetry properties ofthe true many-body state and its mean-field approximation. Here, we addressthis question by considering, theoretically, vortex nucleation in a rotatingBose-Einstein condensate. A slow sweep of the rotation frequency changes thestate of the system from being at rest to the one containing one vortex. Withinthe mean-field framework, the jump in symmetry occurs through a turbulent phasearound a certain critical frequency. The exact many-body ground state at thecritical frequency exhibits strong correlations and entanglement. We believethat this constitutes a paradigm example of symmetry breaking in - or change ofthe order parameter of - quantum many-body systems in the course of adiabaticevolution.



Author: D. Dagnino, N. Barberan, M. Lewenstein, J. Dalibard

Source: https://arxiv.org/







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