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Abstract: Granular surfaces subjected to forces due to rolling wheels develop ripplesabove a critical speed. The resulting pattern, known as -washboard- or-corrugated- road, is common on dry, unpaved roads. We investigated thisphenomenon theoretically and experimentally, using laboratory-scale apparatusand beds of dry sand. A thick layer of sand on a circular track was forced by arolling wheel on an arm whose weight and moment of inertia could be varied. Wecompared the ripples made by the rolling wheel to those made using a simpleinclined plow blade. We investigated the dependence of the critical speed onvarious parameters, and describe a scaling argument which leads to adimensionless ratio, analogous to the hydrodynamic Froude number, whichcontrols the instability. This represents the crossover between conservative,dynamic forces and dissipative, static forces. Above onset, wheel-drivenripples move in the direction of motion of the wheel, but plow-driven ripplesmove in the reverse direction for a narrow range of Froude numbers.



Author: Anne-Florence Bitbol, Nicolas Taberlet, Stephen W. Morris, Jim N. McElwaine

Source: https://arxiv.org/







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