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Abstract: Within the next decade gravitational-wave GW observations by Advanced LIGOin the United States, Advanced Virgo and GEO HF in Europe, and possibly otherground-based instruments will provide unprecedented opportunities to lookdirectly into the dense interiors of neutron stars which are opaque to allforms of electromagnetic EM radiation. The 10-10000 Hz frequency bandavailable to these ground-based interferometers is inhabited by many neutronstar mode frequencies, spin frequencies, and inverse dynamical timescales. GWscan provide information on bulk properties of neutron stars masses, radii,locations

. as well as microphysics of their substance crystallinestructure, viscosity, composition

., some of which is difficult or impossibleto obtain by EM observations alone. The former will tell us about theastrophysics of neutron stars, and the latter will illuminate fundamentalissues in nuclear and particle physics and the physics of extremely condensedmatter. Although GW searches can be done -blind,- they become richer and moreinformative with input from EM observations; and thus the combination of thetwo is crucial for learning the most we can about neutron stars. Healthy GW andEM observational programs must be accompanied by vigorous theoretical researchon the interface of astrophysics, gravitational physics, nuclear and particlephysics in order to extract the most from the observations.

Author: Benjamin J. Owen Penn State



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