Stacking and energetic contribution of aromatic islands at the binding interface of antibody proteinsReport as inadecuate




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Immunome Research

, 6:S1

First Online: 27 September 2010

Abstract

BackgroundThe enrichment and importance of some aromatic residues, such as Tyr and Trp, have been widely noticed at the binding interfaces of antibodies from many experimental and statistical results, some of which were even identified as -hot spots- contributing significantly greater to the binding affinity than other amino acids. However, how these aromatic residues influence the immune binding still deserves further investigation. A large-scale examination was done regarding the local spatial environment around the interfacial Tyr or Trp residues. Energetic contribution of these Tyr and Trp residues to the binding affinity was then studied regarding 82 representative antibody interfaces covering 509 immune complexes from the PDB database and IMGT-3Dstructure-DB.

ResultsThe connectivity analysis of interfacial residues showed that Tyr and Trp tended to cluster into the spatial Aromatic Islands AI rather than being distributed randomly at the antibody interfaces. Out of 82 antibody-antigen complexes, 72% 59 interfaces were found to contain AI with more than 3 aromatic residues. The statistical test against an empirical distribution indicated that the existence of AI was significant in about 60% representative antibody interfaces. Secondly, the loss of solvent accessible surface area SASA for side chains of aromatic residues between actually crowded state and independent state was nicely correlated with the AI size increasing in a linearly positive way which indicated that the aromatic side chains in AI tended to take a compact and ordered stacking conformation at the interfaces. Interestingly, the SASA loss of AI was also correlated roughly with the averaged gap of binding free energy between the theoretical and experimental data for immune complexes.

ConclusionsThe results of our study revealed the wide existence and statistical significance of -Aromatic Island- AI composed of the spatially clustered Tyr and Trp residues at the antibody interfaces. The regular arrangement and stacking of aromatic side chains in AI could probably produce extra cooperative effects to the binding affinity which was firstly observed through the large-scale data analysis. The finding in this work not only provides insights into the functional role of aromatic residues in the antibody-antigen interaction, but also may facilitate the antibody engineering and potential clinical applications.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1745-7580-6-S1-S1 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Di Wu - Jing Sun - Tianlei Xu - Shuning Wang - Guoqing Li - Yixue Li - Zhiwei Cao

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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