A Survey of Routing Issues and Associated Protocols in Underwater Wireless Sensor NetworksReport as inadecuate




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Journal of Sensors - Volume 2017 2017, Article ID 7539751, 17 pages - https:-doi.org-10.1155-2017-7539751

Review Article

Institute of Management Sciences IMS, Peshawar, Pakistan

University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan

Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Yue Cao

Received 18 September 2016; Revised 5 March 2017; Accepted 19 March 2017; Published 22 May 2017

Academic Editor: Banshi D. Gupta

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Khalid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Underwater wireless sensor networks are a newly emerging wireless technology in which small size sensors with limited energy and limited memory and bandwidth are deployed in deep sea water and various monitoring operations like tactical surveillance, environmental monitoring, and data collection are performed through these tiny sensors. Underwater wireless sensor networks are used for the exploration of underwater resources, oceanographic data collection, flood or disaster prevention, tactical surveillance systems, and unmanned underwater vehicles. Sensor nodes consist of a small memory, a central processing unit, and an antenna. Underwater networks are much different from terrestrial sensor networks as radio waves cannot be used in underwater wireless sensor networks. Acoustic channels are used for communication in deep sea water. Acoustic signals have many limitations, such as limited bandwidth, higher end-to-end delay, network path loss, higher propagation delay, and dynamic topology. Usually, these limitations result in higher energy consumption with a smaller number of packets delivered. The main aim nowadays is to operate sensor nodes having a smaller battery for a longer time in the network. This survey has discussed the state-of-the-art localization based and localization-free routing protocols. Routing associated issues in the area of underwater wireless sensor networks have also been discussed.





Author: Muhammad Khalid, Zahid Ullah, Naveed Ahmad, Muhammad Arshad, Bilal Jan, Yue Cao, and Awais Adnan

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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