The Effect of Ventilation, Age, and Asthmatic Condition on Ultrafine Particle Deposition in ChildrenReport as inadecuate




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Pulmonary MedicineVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 736290, 9 pages

Research Article

Center for Environmental Resource Management, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

Civil Engineering Department, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

Geological Sciences Department, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

Aerosol and Dosimetry Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108-5127, USA

School of Nursing, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA

Center for Environmental Health Sciences, University of New Mexico, Los Lunas, NM 87131, USA

Received 15 October 2011; Revised 10 April 2012; Accepted 24 April 2012

Academic Editor: Cecilie Svanes

Copyright © 2012 Hector A. Olvera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ultrafine particles UFPs contribute to health risks associated with air pollution, especially respiratory disease in children. Nonetheless, experimental data on UFP deposition in asthmatic children has been minimal. In this study, the effect of ventilation, developing respiratory physiology, and asthmatic condition on the deposition efficiency of ultrafine particles in children was explored. Deposited fractions of UFP 10–200 nm were determined in 9 asthmatic children, 8 nonasthmatic children, and 5 nonasthmatic adults. Deposition efficiencies in adults served as reference of fully developed respiratory physiologies. A validated deposition model was employed as an auxiliary tool to assess the independent effect of varying ventilation on deposition. Asthmatic conditions were confirmed via pre-and post-bronchodilator spirometry. Subjects were exposed to a hygroscopic aerosol with number geometric mean diameter of 27–31 nm, geometric standard deviation of 1.8–2.0, and concentration of particles cm

. Exposure was through a silicone mouthpiece. Total deposited fraction TDF and normalized deposition rate were 50% and 32% higher in children than in adults. Accounting for tidal volume and age variation, TDF was 21% higher in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic children. The higher health risks of air pollution exposure observed in children and asthmatics might be augmented by their susceptibility to higher dosages of UFP.





Author: Hector A. Olvera, Daniel Perez, Juan W. Clague, Yung-Sung Cheng, Wen-Whai Li, Maria A. Amaya, Scott W. Burchiel, Marianne B

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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