Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptationsReport as inadecuate




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Journal of Molecular Psychiatry

, 3:3

First Online: 18 April 2015Received: 03 February 2015Accepted: 08 April 2015

Abstract

Pathologies of central nervous system CNS functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

KeywordsExercise Neurophysiology Neurobiology Brain stem Hypothalamus Basal nuclei Disease Depression Stress Neurodegenerative Diseases AbbreviationsCNSCentral nervous system

HPAHypothalamic pituitary axis

VWRVoluntary wheel running

DRNDorsal raphe nucleus

RVLMRostral ventrolateral medulla

GABAGamma-aminobutyric acid

LCLocus coeruleus

SCNSuprachiasmic nucleus

HSP72Heat shock protein 72

MetSMetabolic syndrome

CRFCorticotropin releasing factor

IRS2Insulin receptor 2

VTAVentral tegmental area

NTSNucleus tractus solitarii

ERSEndoplasmic reticulum stress

SNSSympathetic nervous system

nNOSNeural nitric oxide synthase

PVNParaventricular nucleus

ACTHAdrenocorticotrophic hormone

GCsGlucocorticoids

GRGlucocorticoid receptor

THTyrosine hydroxylase

TBARSThiobarbituric acid reactive substances

SODSuperoxide dismutase

BDNFBrain derived neurotrophic factor

NOSNitrergic nitric oxide synthase

GFAPGial fibrillary acidic protein

MPTP1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine

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Author: Julie A Morgan - Frances Corrigan - Bernhard T Baune

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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