Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced NeurotoxicityReport as inadecuate




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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular LongevityVolume 2016 2016, Article ID 5296271, 11 pages

Research Article

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850, USA

College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA

Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA

Received 25 June 2015; Revised 26 August 2015; Accepted 30 August 2015

Academic Editor: Wei Chen

Copyright © 2016 A. J. Case et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Herbicides containing paraquat may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Paraquat induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in neurons, which is a primary mechanism behind its toxicity. We sought to test the effectiveness of a commercially available polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa aronia berry concentrate in the amelioration of paraquat-induced neurotoxicity. Considering the abundance of antioxidants in aronia berries, we hypothesized that aronia berry concentrate attenuates the paraquat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species and protects against paraquat-mediated neuronal cell death. Using a neuronal cell culture model, we observed that low doses of aronia berry concentrate protected against paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity. Additionally, low doses of the concentrate attenuated the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxidized glutathione levels. Interestingly, high doses of aronia berry concentrate increased neuronal superoxide levels independent of paraquat, while at the same time decreasing hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, high-dose aronia berry concentrate potentiated paraquat-induced superoxide production and neuronal cell death. In summary, aronia berry concentrate at low doses restores the homeostatic redox environment of neurons treated with paraquat, while high doses exacerbate the imbalance leading to further cell death. Our findings support that moderate levels of aronia berry concentrate may prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated neurotoxicity.





Author: A. J. Case, D. Agraz, I. M. Ahmad, and M. C. Zimmerman

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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