Defensive Regurgitation by a Noctuid Moth Larva Litoprosopus FutilisReport as inadecuate

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Psyche - Volume 100 1993, Issue 3-4, Pages 209-221

Section of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853, NY, USA

University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1300 University Ave., Madison 53706, WI, USA

Received 19 July 1993

Copyright © 1993 Scott R. Smedley et al.


Larvae of the noctuid moth Litoprosopus futilis regurgitatewhen disturbed. The oral effluent proved deterrent to ants on nearcontact,and topically irritating in a scratch test with a cockroach.Larvae regurgitated when attacked by lycosid spiders and derivedsome protection from this behavior. Caterpillars were able toregurgitate even when emerging from the eggs; however, at thisstage, they proved vulnerable to attack by chrysopid larvae andants.

Author: Scott R. Smedley, Elizabeth Ehrhardt, and Thomas Eisner



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