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Stem Cells International - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 3152173, 8 pages -

Review ArticleCollege of Veterinary Medicine, Shaanxi Center of Stem Cells Engineering and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China

Received 27 May 2016; Accepted 26 September 2016

Academic Editor: Gary E. Lyons

Copyright © 2016 Na Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In mammals, germ cells guarantee the inheritance of genetic and epigenetic information across generations and are the origin of a new organism. During embryo development, the blastocyst is formed in the early stage, is comprised of an inner cell mass which is pluripotent, and could give rise to the embryonic stem cells ESCs. The inner cell mass undergoes demethylation processes and will reestablish a methylated state that is similar to that of somatic cells later in epiblast stage. Primordial germ cells PGCs will be formed very soon and accompanied by the process of genome-wide demethylation. With the input of male sex determination genes, spermatogonial stem cells SSCs are generated and undergo the process of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis is a delicately regulated process in which various regulations are launched to guarantee normal mitosis and meiosis in SSCs. During all these processes, especially during spermatid development, DNA methylation profile and histone modifications are of crucial importance. In this review, we will discuss the epigenetic modifications from zygote formation to mature sperm generation and their significance to these development processes.





Author: Na Li, Qiaoyan Shen, and Jinlian Hua

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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