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BMC Pulmonary Medicine

, 17:101

Epidemiology and public health

Abstract

BackgroundTo estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in individuals with type 2 diabetes, as compared to the general population.

MethodsBetween 2007 and 2010 the screening questionnaire of GEIRD Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study was administered to two samples of Verona general population, aged respectively 45-64 years and 65-84 years, and to a convenience sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes, consequently recruited at the local Diabetes Centre. Ninety-four and 165 people with type 2 diabetes, aged respectively 45-64 and 65-84 years, were compared with 676 and 591 subjects in the same age range from the general population. The influence of type 2 diabetes on respiratory symptoms was evaluated by logistic regression models, controlling for sex, age 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84 years, education level, smoking habits and heavy vehicle traffic exposure and adjusting standard errors of ORs for intra-sample correlation.

ResultsCompared to the general population, dyspnoea limiting walking pace on level ground grade 2 dyspnoea was more frequently reported by people with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of age p < 0.001, while self-reported chronic cough-phlegm was more common in those aged 45-64 years p = 0.02. These results were confirmed by multivariable analysis: compared to their counterparts from the general population, people with type 2 diabetes aged 45-54 years showed an increased risk of reporting grade 2 dyspnoea OR = 3.92, 95% CI 3.28-4.68 or chronic cough-phlegm OR = 1.69, 1.60-1.78. Similar figures held significant at older ages 75-84 years, although partially blunted dyspnoea: OR = 1.79, 1.68-1.91; chough-phlegm: OR = 1.09, 1.03-1.16. As such, the interaction between age class and type 2 diabetes was significant for both respiratory disorders. The proportion of self-reported dyspnoea among individuals with type 2 diabetes significantly increased across incremental body-mass index BMI, from 15.4 to 25.4% and further to 41.3% respectively in normoweight, overweight and obese patients p = 0.048.

ConclusionsPeople with type 2 diabetes more frequently reported grade 2 dyspnoea and chronic cough-phlegm than the general population of the same age, although presenting similar smoking habits. Diabetes appears to anticipate the lung ageing process, recorded in the general population. The increased occurrence of dyspnoea at incremental BMI among individuals with type 2 diabetes may reflect both cardiovascular and respiratory impairment in this high-risk patient population.

KeywordsDyspnoea Chronic cough-phlegm Eczema Asthma-like symptoms Type 2 diabetes Ageing Obesity Smoking AbbreviationsBMIBody Mass Index

COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

ECRHSEuropean Community Respiratory Health Survey

GEIRDGene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases

HbA1cGlycated Haemoglobin

mMRCModified Medical Research Council grade 2 dyspnoea

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Author: F. De Santi - G. Zoppini - F. Locatelli - E. Finocchio - V. Cappa - M. Dauriz - G. Verlato

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12890-017-0443-1



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