Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its AmeliorationReport as inadecuate




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Veterinary Medicine InternationalVolume 2011 2011, Article ID 457327, 9 pages

Review Article

Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India

Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India

Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom 281122, UP, India

Received 12 January 2011; Accepted 21 January 2011

Academic Editor: Cristina Castillo Rodríguez

Copyright © 2011 R. C. Patra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects.





Author: R. C. Patra, Amiya K. Rautray, and D. Swarup

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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