en fr Globalisation of industrial R&D : analysis of the dynamics of foreign R&D centres using the concept of proximities La globalisation de la R&D industrielle : analyse et modlisation de la dynamique des centres de R&D implantsReport as inadecuate




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1 LATTS - Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Socits

Abstract : This thesis addresses the question of the dynamics of foreign industrial R&D centres.Just as Ronstadt 1978, Asakawa 2001 and Asakawa & Som 2008 did before us, we notice thatthe mission and the position of the R&D centres in their internal innovation network are changing over time. We have identified four different phases in these dynamics: 1- the setting up of the centre, 2- the double phase during which the centre builds up its own identity, thanks to its integration into its internal innovation network and the creation of its external innovation network, 3- its maturity.One of the key questions was then to understand how the centre was able to rise from its first phase, during which it did not have its own identity, to its maturity phase, where it has its own speciality and is recognized as one of the key elements of its internal innovation network. In order to answer this question, we have identified the types of relationships between the centre, its internal innovation network and its local environment during each phase of its dynamics. We used the academic literature on clusters which tried to determine the types of relationships other than geographical proximity that make the exchanges of knowledge and know-how, as well as the creation of confidence between organisms possible. To answer this question, it introduces a concept which is not widely used in the academic literature on the globalisation of the R&D: the concept of proximities Boschma 2005. Weused six types of proximities in order to understand the dynamics of the foreign R&D centres: the geographical proximity, the formal and informal institutional proximities, the organisational, cultural and social proximities. The results of our study show that each phase of the evolution of the foreign R&D centre can be characterised by an architecture of proximities between the centre, its internal innovation network and its local environment.Our results come from several empirical observations: 1- we have built and organized a focus groupon the globalisation of R&D during two years. This focus group was made of several industrial R&Dmanagers, 2- we have studies the Indian foreign R&D centres of four multinational companies: ABB,AkzoNobel, Procter & Gamble and Siemens, 3- we have used several short case studies gatheredduring informal interviews and professional meetings on the globalisation of R&D. This empirical work has been realized in the framework of a public-private partnership between our laboratory and the European Association for Industrial Research Management EIRMA.

Rsum : Le travail de recherche que nous prsentons dans ce document porte sur la dynamique des centres de R&D industriels implants l-tranger. Comme Ronstadt 1978, Asakawa 2001 et Asakawa & Som 2008, nous constatons que la mission et la position des centres de R&D dans le rseau interne d-innovation de la firme voluent. Nous avons modlis cette volution en quatre phases distinctes : l-implantation du centre, la double phase de la construction de son identit grce son intgration au rseau interne d-innovation de la firme et la construction de son rseau externe d-innovation et enfin la maturit du centre.Nous avons ensuite cherch comprendre comment le centre passait de sa phase d-implantation,durant laquelle il n-a pas encore d-identit propre, sa phase de maturit, o il est parvenu se spcialiser et devenir un lment cl du rseau interne d-innovation de la firme. Nous avons caractris chacun des moments de l-volution du centre par les types de relations entre le centre,son rseau interne d-innovation et son environnement local. Pour y parvenir, nous nous sommes appuye sur la littrature sur les clusters qui s-est intresse aux types de liens ncessaires l-change de savoirs et de savoir-faire et la construction de rapports de confiance entre plusieurs organismes au-del de la seule considration de leur proximit gographique. Cette littrature apporte un outil peu mobilis dans la littrature sur la globalisation de la R&D : les proximits Boschma,2005. Nous avons utilis six types de proximits pour comprendre et analyser de quelle manire un centre de R&D implant l-tranger voluait : les proximits gographique, institutionnelle organise, institutionnelle inorganise, structurelle, cognitive et sociale. Il ressort de nos travaux que chacune des phases de l-volution du centre se caractrise par une architecture de proximits spcifique entre le centre, son rseau interne d-innovation et son environnement local.Pour parvenir ces rsultats et pour les valider, nous avons combin plusieurs outils mthodologiques : 1- nous avons construit et anim pendant deux ans un focus group compos de managers de la R&D industrielle sur le thme de la globalisation de la R&D, 2- nous avons tudi les centres de R&D implants Bangalore de quatre entreprises multinationales : ABB, AkzoNobel,Procter & Gamble et Siemens, 3- enfin, nous nous sommes appuye sur un grand nombre de minicas, recueillis lors d-entretiens informels ou de runions relatives la question de la globalisation de la R&D. L-ensemble de ce travail empirique a t fait dans le cadre d-une thse CIFRE avec l-association europenne pour le management de la recherche industrielle EIRMA.

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Keywords : Proximities Dynamics

Mots-cls : R&d Innovation Internationalisation Globalisation Dynamique Proximits





Author: Edwige Chassagneux -

Source: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/



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