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Journal of Biomedicine and BiotechnologyVolume 2009 2009, Article ID 654346, 13 pages

Review Article

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Scienze Biochimiche, Sezione di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06126 Perugia, Italy

Laboratorio di Neurogenetica, CERC-IRCCS Santa Lucia, Via del Fosso di Fiorano 64, 00143 Rome, Italy

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy

Received 2 February 2009; Revised 11 May 2009; Accepted 20 July 2009

Academic Editor: Ravi Sachidanandam

Copyright © 2009 Sabata Martino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNAs miRNAs have rapidly emerged as biologically important mediators of posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulation in both plants and animals. miRNAs function through a variety of mechanisms including mRNA degradation and translational repression; additionally, miRNAs may guide gene expression by serving as transcription factors. miRNAs are highly expressed in human brain. Tissue and cell type-specific enrichments of certain miRNAs within the nervous system argue for a biological significance during neurodevelopmental stages. On the other hand, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathologic conditions such as cancer, heart diseases, and neurodegeneration. Thus, profiles of distinct or aberrant miRNA signatures have most recently surged as one of the most fascinating interests in current biology. Here, the most recent insights into the involvement of miRNAs in the biology of the nervous system and the occurrence of neuropathological disorders are reviewed and discussed.





Author: Sabata Martino, Ilaria di Girolamo, Antonio Orlacchio, Alessandro Datti, and Aldo Orlacchio

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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