Temporal and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed: a cluster analysis based on crude and Bayesian risk estimatesReport as inadecuate




Temporal and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed: a cluster analysis based on crude and Bayesian risk estimates - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

International Journal of Health Geographics

, 9:31

First Online: 17 June 2010Received: 12 April 2010Accepted: 17 June 2010DOI: 10.1186-1476-072X-9-31

Cite this article as: Szonyi, B., Wade, S.E. & Mohammed, H.O. Int J Health Geogr 2010 9: 31. doi:10.1186-1476-072X-9-31

Abstract

BackgroundCryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important biological contaminants in drinking water that produces life threatening infection in people with compromised immune systems. Dairy calves are thought to be the primary source of C. parvum contamination in watersheds. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in the risk of C. parvum infection in dairy cattle is essential for designing cost-effective watershed management strategies to protect drinking water sources. Crude and Bayesian seasonal risk estimates for Cryptosporidium in dairy calves were used to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of C. parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City watershed.

ResultsBoth global Global Moran-s I and specific SaTScan cluster analysis methods revealed a significant p < 0.05 elliptical spatial cluster in the winter with a relative risk of 5.8, but not in other seasons. There was a two-fold increase in the risk of C. parvum infection in all herds in the summer p = 0.002, compared to the rest of the year. Bayesian estimates did not show significant spatial autocorrelation in any season.

ConclusionsAlthough we were not able to identify seasonal clusters using Bayesian approach, crude estimates highlighted both temporal and spatial clusters of C. parvum infection in dairy herds in a major watershed. We recommend that further studies focus on the factors that may lead to the presence of C. parvum clusters within the watershed, so that monitoring and prevention practices such as stream monitoring, riparian buffers, fencing and manure management can be prioritized and improved, to protect drinking water supplies and public health.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1476-072X-9-31 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Barbara Szonyi - Susan E Wade - Hussni O Mohammed

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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