Distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at Korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, Republic of KoreaReport as inadecuate

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Malaria Journal

, 15:259

First Online: 05 May 2016Received: 08 February 2016Accepted: 19 April 2016DOI: 10.1186-s12936-016-1301-y

Cite this article as: Chang, K.S., Yoo, DH., Ju, Y.R. et al. Malar J 2016 15: 259. doi:10.1186-s12936-016-1301-y


BackgroundAs a result of the reintroduction of malaria in the Republic of Korea ROK in 1993 and the threat to military and civilian populations, the Korea Military National Defense MND increased emphasis on vector control in 2012 at ROK Army ROKA installations located near the DMZ, while decreasing chemoprophylaxis, fearing potential drug resistance. Mosquito surveillance demonstrated a need for continuous monitoring of disease patterns among ROKA soldiers and vector malaria infection rates to ensure positive outcomes.

MethodsAnopheles spp. were collected from May–October at three ROKA installations in three locations near the DMZ. Each of the areas included one installation <2 km and two installations 11–12 km from the DMZ in Paju and Yeoncheon counties, Gyeonggi Province. Anopheles spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction PCR techniques and then assayed for the presence of vivax malaria sporozoites. The ROK MND reported vivax malaria patients monthly to Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Correlations for the incidence of Plasmodium vivax patients and infected Anopheles species were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Pearson correlation test and liner regression analysis.

ResultsA total of 4282 Anopheles spp. were collected. Anopheles kleini 69.5 % was the most commonly collected, followed by Anopheles pullus 17.3 %, Anopheles belenrae 4.5 %, Anopheles sineroides 4.2 %, Anopheles sinensis sensu stricto 2.7 %, and Anopheles lesteri 1.9 %. Overall, 21 malaria patients were reported by the ROK MND. The monthly incidence of the malaria patients correlated with the monthly number of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite positive Anopheles spp. The monthly numbers of An.kleini demonstrated the highest correlations to the numbers of ROKA malaria patients throughout the mosquito season P < 0.01. Anopheles spp. positive for P. vivax and malaria patients at ROKA installations located <2 km from the DMZ were higher than for ROKA installations located 11–12 km from DMZ.

ConclusionThe number of Anopheles spp. positive for P. vivax sporozoites correlated with the monthly number of malaria cases and exposure of ROKA soldiers from May–October to P. vivax malaria infections. Malaria vector surveillance and vector control is warranted as part of an effective malaria management program at ROKA installations located near DMZ.

KeywordsMalaria Anopheles Plasmodium vivax Demilitarized zone Korea Army-installation  Download fulltext PDF

Author: Kyu Sik Chang - Dae-Hyun Yoo - Young Ran Ju - Wook Gyo Lee - Jong Yul Roh - Heung-Chul Kim - Terry A. Klein - E-Hyun 

Source: https://link.springer.com/

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