Exposure factors of cadmium for residents in an abandoned metal mine area in KoreaReport as inadecuate




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Environmental Geochemistry and Health

pp 1–12

First Online: 26 September 2016Received: 02 February 2016Accepted: 06 September 2016DOI: 10.1007-s10653-016-9872-7

Cite this article as: Ahn, S.C., Chang, J.Y., Lee, J.S. et al. Environ Geochem Health 2016. doi:10.1007-s10653-016-9872-7

Abstract

This study evaluated blood and urine cadmium Cd levels and human exposure factors for residents in an abandoned metal mine in Korea. We collected blood, urine, soil, water, and rice grain samples to analyze Cd concentrations and analyzed heavy metal concentration patterns in soil. We estimated the major exposure factor of Cd through non-carcinogenic risk assessment depending on exposure routes. The blood Cd concentration in the case group was 5.33 μg-L geometric mean, significantly higher than that in the control group 1.63 μg-L, geometric mean. Urine Cd concentrations were also similar. The Cd concentrations in paddy soil 1.29 mg-kg and rice grains 0.14 mg-kg in the study area were higher than those in the control area 0.91 and 0.07 mg-kg, respectively. The analysis of heavy metal concentration in soil showed that the Cd levels in agricultural soil in the case group were attributable to the mine. The hazard quotient HQ of Cd by rice ingestion in the case group 1.25 was 2 times higher than that in the control group 0.6. We found that the HQ of rice ingestion contributed to more than 97 % of the total HQ, indicating that rice grains were the major exposure source. However, it is likely that the continuous intake of Cd-exposed crops led to chronic exposure among the residents in mine area.

KeywordsCadmium Human exposure factor Abandoned metal mine Risk assessment Rice grain  Download fulltext PDF



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