Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen SulfideReport as inadecuate




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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 4723416, 13 pages -

Review Article

Institute for Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Frankfurter Strasse 100, 35392 Giessen, Germany

Institute for Animal Physiology, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany

Received 29 October 2015; Accepted 17 December 2015

Academic Editor: Yi C. Zhu

Copyright © 2016 Ervice Pouokam and Mike Althaus. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydrogen sulfide H2S is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a -gasotransmitter.- A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations.





Author: Ervice Pouokam and Mike Althaus

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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