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Malaria Journal

, 15:592

First Online: 09 December 2016Received: 10 September 2016Accepted: 25 November 2016DOI: 10.1186-s12936-016-1640-8

Cite this article as: Ayanful-Torgby, R., Oppong, A., Abankwa, J. et al. Malar J 2016 15: 592. doi:10.1186-s12936-016-1640-8

Abstract

BackgroundPlasmodium falciparum gametocytes are vital to sustaining malaria transmission. Parasite densities, multiplicity of infection as well as asexual genotype are features that have been found to influence gametocyte production. Measurements of the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. gametocytes may serve as a tool to monitor the success of malaria eradication efforts.

MethodsWhole blood was collected from 112 children aged between 6 months and 13 years with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria attending three health facilities in southern Ghana from June to August, 2014 before day 0 and 4 days after completion of anti-malaria drug treatment day 7. Malaria parasites were observed by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction PCR; submicroscopic gametocyte carriage was measured by a Pfs25 PF3D7 1031000 mRNA real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR. Parasite genotyping was performed on gDNA extracted from dried filter paper blood blots by amplification of the polymorphic regions of msp1 PF3D7 0930300 and msp2 PF3D7 0206800 using PCR.

ResultsMicroscopy estimated 3.1% 3-96 of the total population to carry gametocytes on day 0, which decreased to 2.1% 2-96 on day 7. In contrast, reverse transcriptase-real time PCR RT-PCR analysis of a subset of 35 samples estimated submicroscopic gametocyte carriage to be as high as 77% 27-35 using primers specific for Pfs25 CT < 35 on day 0 and by day 7 this only declined to 60% 21-35. Genotyping the msp2 gene identified higher levels of MOI than the msp1 gene.

ConclusionsAlthough below detection by microscopy, gametocyte prevalence at submicroscopic levels are high in this region and emphasize the need for more effective elimination approaches like the development of transmission-blocking vaccines and safer gametocytocidal drugs.

KeywordsGametocytes Genetic diversity Multiplicity of infection AbbreviationsACTartemisinin-based combination therapy

cDNAcomplementary deoxyribonucleic acid

DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid

EDTAethylenediamine tetra acetic acid

GLURPglutamate rich protein

MOImultiplicity of infection

MSPmerozoite surface protein

RNAribonucleic acid

RT-PCRreal time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12936-016-1640-8 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Ruth Ayanful-Torgby - Akua Oppong - Joana Abankwa - Festus Acquah - Kimberly C. Williamson - Linda Eva Amoah

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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