Frequency and Levels of Reflection: Their Relationship to the Evolution of Novice through Expert Teachers Recall.Report as inadecuate




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This paper reports on a study of the frequency and level(s) of teachers' reflection and the thoroughness of their recall of their own and their students' specific classroom behaviors. The sample consisted of 3 groups of elementary school teachers: 4 novice student teachers, 5 teachers with 1 to 6.5 years experience, and 3 teachers with from 10 to 30 years of experience. Qualitative methods were utilized in the research. The data revealed that participants placed emphasis on different levels of and exhibited different consistencies of reflection. All teachers reflected about equally at level 1, application of pedagogical knowledge. With increasing experience, the teachers placed more emphasis on level 2, assessment of educational consequences of teaching actions and/or clarifying assumptions underlying competing educational goals, and on level 3, meeting human needs and purposes. The findings also indicated that when years of experience were equal, the more reflective teachers exhibited more thorough recall; when consistency and frequency of reflection were relatively equal, the more experienced teacher(s) demonstrated the more thorough recall. The findings suggest that teacher education programs should include curriculum and instruction to enhance novices' recall ability and encourage teacher educators to reconsider their goals so as not to expect too much from novices too soon. Also, teachers vary in their ability to reflect, regardless of their experience. (Contains 30 references.) (ND)

Descriptors: Beginning Teachers, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Recall (Psychology), Reflective Teaching, Teaching Experience











Author: Allen, Ruth M.; Casbergue, Renee M.

Source: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=12475&id=ED398203







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