# Von Neumann's 'No Hidden Variables' Proof: A Re-Appraisal - Quantum Physics

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Abstract: Since the analysis by John Bell in 1965, the consensus in the literature isthat von Neumann-s -no hidden variables- proof fails to exclude any significantclass of hidden variables. Bell raised the question whether it could be shownthat any hidden variable theory would have to be nonlocal, and in this sense-like Bohm-s theory.- His seminal result provides a positive answer to thequestion. I argue that Bell-s analysis misconstrues von Neumann-s argument.What von Neumann proved was the impossibility of recovering the quantumprobabilities from a hidden variable theory of dispersion free deterministicstates in which the quantum observables are represented as the -beables- of thetheory, to use Bell-s term. That is, the quantum probabilities could notreflect the distribution of pre-measurement values of beables, but would haveto be derived in some other way, e.g., as in Bohm-s theory, where theprobabilities are an artefact of a dynamical process that is not in fact ameasurement of any beable of the system.

Author: ** Jeffrey Bub**

Source: https://arxiv.org/