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Reference: Martindale, Joanna., (1977). The response to Horace in the seventeenth century. DPhil. University of Oxford.Citable link to this page:


The response to Horace in the seventeenth century Subtitle: (with special reference to the Odes and to the period 1600-1660)

Abstract: This thesis traces the various vievs of Horace held in theseventeenth century and examines translation and imitation in theperiod. The main focus is on the influence of Horace's Odes onlyric poetry. For the period 1600-1660, four authors are discussedin detail, Ben Jonson, Herrick, Marvell and Cowley. Otherauthors treated include Drayton, Samuel Daniel, Donne, Campion,Chapman, Wotton, Carew, Randolph, Cartwright, Habington, Vaughan,Lovelace, Fanshave, Mildmay Fane, George Daniel of Beswick, Milton,Oven Felltham, Izaak Walton, Denham, Waller and Alexander Brome.In the period from 1660, authors discussed include Dryden, Rochester,Sedley, Dorset, Mulgrave, Otway, Etherege, Wycherley, Oldham, Prior,Ambrose Philips, Katherine Philips, John Norris, Cotton, Lady MaryChudleigh, Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea, John Rawlet, JohnTutchin, Temple and Evelyn.The introduction argues briefly that although Horace is normally associated vith the eighteenth century, in fact his Odes were more influential in the earlier part of the seventeenth century, and pointsto some misconceptions about the nature of Horace's poetry that havehelped to obscure this. It notes that the interest in the Odes in theperiod is a change from the Mediaeval and sixteenth-century approachto Horace, and points out that the study of how a period responds to aparticular poet throve light on its general character.Chapter I provides some background information. It outlines theplace of Horace in the school curricula and shove that the twin emphasesin the school reading of Horace were on his morals and his style, thelatter being studied with the practical aim of imitation. Schooltextbooks are described. An account of editions of Horace in the period follows. It is pointed out that the text of Horace was morecorrupt than it is today, and argued that some of the translators ofHorace used the school edition of John Bond. The twin emphases ofcommentary on Horace are again shown to be on his morals and his style:Parthenio's commentary is examined in some detail. Next, some ideasabout Horace's life disseminated by the lives included in editions arementioned. Finally, the influence of quotation books and emblem booksis considered. It is argued that though they contained many of thepoet's favourite Horatian passages, this does not mean that writers didnot read Horace directly. It is shown that they present a moralHorace and that they sometimes cause distortion through excerptingpassages out of context.Chapter II deals with the volumes of translations of Horace byThomas Drant, John Ashmore, Thomas Hawkins, Henry Rider, John Smith,'Unknown Mase', and Richard Fanshawe. A brief sketch is given ofthe development of translation in the century, and it is pointed outthat there are some examples of the 'imitation' before Cowley. Thebooks of translations are then examined against this background, and itis argued that Fanshawe should not be viewed as heralding the mid-centuryrevolution in translation but as fitting into his own period. The twininterests of the translators are analysed as being content, primarilymoral, and lyric style. Fanshawe is seen as of particular interest astrying to embody Horatian moral ideals in his life and as being mostsuccessful in conveying Horace's lyricism.Chapter III discusses various ways in which the formal aspects ofHorace's Odes influenced seventeenth-century lyric. It is pointedout that this influence has been obscured because English writers donot produce pastiches but recreate Horace in modern modes and because of generic differences between the Odes and seventeenth-century lyric.Some differences in structure and style between the two are thenconsidered, Cowley's translation of C.III.i and Carew's The Springbeing used to illustrate the differences of structure. Some exceptionsare noted in the poetry of Milton, Jonson, Herrick, etc. Next, thesimilarities and areas of influence are discussed - blends in tone,methods of making lyric personal and various poetic poses.Chapter IV deals with Ben Jonson. First, it is shown in somedetail how he built up a persona in Poetaster drawn from Horace whichhe then carried-over into his poems, although in the latter it is morevaried, humorous and attractive. Next it is shown how his approach toHorace was a moral one, and how he absorbs topics from Horace into hismoral vision. Thirdly, his close, craftsmanly, rhetorical interest inHorace is described, with reference to his underlinings in Parthenio'scommentary, his translations of Horace and his imitations of Horatianfeatures of style in An Ode. To himselfe. The chapter concludes witha brief discussion of Jonson's classicism.Chapter V considers Herrick. The aspects of his persona whichderive from the Anacreontea and the Greek Anthology are first noted,and then the Jonsonian-Horatian poems, A Country life and A Panegerickto Sir Lewis Pemberton are discussed. Next Herrick's distinctive poseas the small man and his Horatian poetic autobiography are describedand evaluated. There follow detailed discussions of His age and A Paranaeticall, or Advisive Verse and of Herrick's use of the nonsemper theme. Herrick's method of combining many classical topicsand allusions in one poem is demonstrated, and the chapter ends byconsidering his general similarity of spirit with Horace.Chapter VI investigates the conventional seventeenth-centuryview of Horace as a moral poet. It is argued that Horace could beviewed as a moral poet by judicious selection, as in the poetry ofCasimir Sarbiewski. The easy way in which poets blended Horatianmoral themes with Christianity is demonstrated, and some less easyblends, for example in the poetry of William Habington, are described.The formation of an ideal of the constant man from Horace's descriptionsof the Stoic sapiens in Serm.II.vii.83-8 and C.III.iii.1-8 isgiven as an example of assimilation of Horace involving some distortion.The seventeenth-century ideal of constancy and Horace's attitude tochange are contrasted, and a contrast is also drawn between Englishpoets' understanding of Horace here and that of Erasmus, Montaigneand Isaac Casaubon. Next, a sketch of the favourite moral themesimitated from Horace is drawn. Finally, it is shown how seventeenth-centurypoets began to adopt the Horatian manner of treating moral themes,by relating moral commonplaces to their personal predicament, in bothepistle and ode, and a contrast is drawn with the sixteenth century.Chapter VII deals with imitation of some other Horatian themes.It is shown that Horace's love poems, with the exception of C.III.ix,were not very influential. The strong response of seventeenth-centurypoets to Horace's poems on transience is discussed. It is then arguedthat some modern English scholars misrepresent carpe diem in Horace asbeing a seduction argument, whereas it is really a symposiac topic of apotentially serious Epicurean kind, compatible with the teaching of theSermon on the Mount. Some combinations of Horace and the Sermon onthe Mount in seventeenth-century poetry are discussed. Some accountic then given of the growth of understanding of Epicurus' teaching onpleasure as manifested in Charleton's Epicurus's morals, and a group of Horatian writers who vere interested in Epicureanism - Evelyn, Cowleyand Fanshave - are noted. Next, imitations of Horace's symposiacpoexas are treated. Seven poems, Jonson's Inviting a Friend to Supper,Herrick's An Ode to Sir Clipsebie Crew, Milton's sonnets to Lawrence andSkinner, Vaughan's To hid retired friend, an Invitation to Brecknock andTo

. Leves and Lovelace's The Grasse-hopper, are discussed in detail.It is argued that these are some of the most perfect recreations ofHorace in the century. A local reason for interest in Horace'ssymposiac poetry is found in the Cavalier hostility to Puritanism.Finally, it is shovn that there vere fev imitations of Horace's publicpoems In English in this period apart from the Horatian Ode.Chapter VIII deals with Marvell. It is argued that though Marvelldoes not imitate many specific topics from Horace, he is very close toHorace in spirit. One or two ingenious variations of Horatian topicsare discussed. The last section is on An Horatian Ode. It is arguedthat, although the poem cannot be entirely accounted for as Horatianpastiche, Marvell imitated Horace's political odes, notably theCleopatra ode, and that he chose Horace as a model because he offereda detached and objective style of panegyric, in contrast to the styleof Waller.Chapter IX discusses Cowley. It is argued that he is a transitionalfigure in the century's response to Horace, and his viev of Horace as apoet of retirement and gardens is discussed. Adoptions of a Horatianrole in his pre-Restoration works are noted. The later works, the SexLibri Plantarum and the Essays, are then discussed in detail. The latterIs considered as an anthology of earlier poets' favourite passages ofHorace. It is shovn that Cowley became a period ideal of the Horatianman. It is argued that Cowley vas more interested in Horace's themes than his style, so that he was willing to recast Horace in the alienBanner of the Pindaric, and that because he was more interested inthe hexameter poems than the Odes, he prefigures the Restorationapproach: but the Essays are seen as belonging in spirit to theearlier period.Chapter X investigates the lightened conception of Horace prevalentin the Restoration. It examines briefly French commentators, translation,Dryden and the Court wits, and considers various new ideas ofHorace, as a man of the Town and gallant, as a model of civilisedintercourse, as a philosopher of common sense, and as a libertine'Epicurean'. Two reasons behind this latter view are examined - thelibertinism of the Court wits and the polarisation of lyric into highand low. It is argued that Horace's hexameter poems became more influentialthan the Odes. Finally, an exceptional group, the Cowleians,are shown to have inherited a serious conception of Horace and many ofthe themes which appealed to earlier poets, although, in admiring Horace'scontent more than his lyric style, they are seen as heralding the eighteenth-centuryrational approach to Horace.There are four appendices. The first shows that many, but not all,of the echoes of Horace in Herrick's A Country life may be found inMirandula. The second gives a list of books of translations of Horace inthe century and discusses some problems relating to them: it argues thatHolyday was not the author of All Horace his lyrics; it identifies RobertCreswell as the author of an anonyaous translation of C.IV.vii in Brome'santhology; it discusses the identity of J.H. and the date of compositionof his translations; and it explains the two 1715 volumes. The thirdand fourth are a list of single translations from the Odes and Epodes anda list of echoes and quotations of favourite passages of Horace.

Type of Award:DPhil Level of Award:Doctoral Awarding Institution: University of Oxford Notes:The digital copy of this thesis has been made available thanks to the generosity of Dr Leonard Polonsky

Bibliographic Details

Issue Date: 1977Identifiers

Urn: uuid:c14d5558-5e69-4fbc-a703-694c10a96ed2

Source identifier: 602329446 Item Description

Type: Thesis;

Language: eng Subjects: Early modern, 1500-1700 Influence English literature History and criticism Tiny URL: td:602329446


Author: Martindale, Joanna. - institutionUniversity of Oxford facultyFaculty of English Language and Literature - - - - Bibliographic Det



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