Opening the Black Box: Instructional Strategies Examined.Report as inadecuate

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A conditions-based approach to the development of microlevel organizational strategies for instruction is explored. The conditions model reflects the idea that differences in learning tasks, primarily qualitative differences in the cognitive processing required of different learning tasks, can suggest different ways by which instruction can either supply the processing needed or assist learners to generate the needed processing. A perceived limitation has been the idea that conditions-based models prescribe only supplantive instruction or that the models are inherently biased toward supplantation. This limitation is overcome in a recent work (Smith and Ragan, 1993), which presents a revision of the events of instruction in which both generative and supplantive interpretations are suggested by the wording of each event. Strategy recommendations using the expanded events of learning are presented in summary sheets for (1) declarative knowledge; (2) concept learning; (3) procedural rule learning; (4) relational rule learning; (5) problem solving; (6) attitude learning; and (7) learning psychomotor skills. (Contains 70 references.) (SLD)

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Instructional Design, Learning Strategies, Models, Organization, Problem Solving, Skill Development, Student Attitudes, Teaching Methods

Author: Ragan, Tillman J.; Smith, Patricia L.



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