Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar in populations with high genetic diversity and moderate parasite gene flow.Report as inadecuate




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Reference: Htun, MW, Mon, NCN, Aye, KM et al., (2017). Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar in populations with high genetic diversity and moderate parasite gene flow. Malar J, 16 (1), 281.Citable link to this page:

 

Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar in populations with high genetic diversity and moderate parasite gene flow.

Abstract: BACKGROUND:Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. METHODS: Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28. Pvmdr1 copy number (CN) and microsatellite diversity were assessed on samples from the patients enrolled in the clinical study and additional cross-sectional surveys undertaken in Myawaddy and Shwegyin in 2012. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients were enrolled in the CQ clinical studies, 25 in Myawaddy and 60 in Kawthoung. One patient in Myawaddy (1.2%) had an early treatment failure and two patients (2.3%) in Kawthoung presented with late treatment failures on day 28. The day 28 efficacy was 92.0% (95% CI 71.6-97.9) in Myawaddy and 98.3% (95% CI 88.7-99.8) in Kawthoung. By day 2, 92.2% (23/25) in Myawaddy and 85.0% (51/60) in Kawthoung were aparasitaemic. Genotyping and pvmdr1 CN assessment was undertaken on 43, 52 and 46 clinical isolates from Myawaddy, Kawthoung and Shwegyin respectively. Pvmdr1 amplification was observed in 3.2% (1/31) of isolates in Myawaddy, 0% (0/49) in Kawthoung and 2.5% (1/40) in Shwegyin. Diversity was high in all sites (HE 0.855-0.876), with low inter-population differentiation (FST 0.016-0.026, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment failures after chloroquine were observed following chloroquine monotherapy, with pvmdr1 amplification present in both Myawaddy and Shwegyin. The results emphasize the importance of ongoing P. vivax drug resistance surveillance in Myanmar, particularly given the potential connectivity between parasite population at different sites.

Publication status:PublishedPeer Review status:Peer reviewedVersion:Publisher's versionDate of acceptance:2017-06-26 Funder: Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade   Funder: US Agency for International Development-President's Malaria Initiative   Funder: Wellcome Trust   Funder: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation   Notes:This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Bibliographic Details

Publisher: BioMed Central

Publisher Website: https://www.biomedcentral.com/

Journal: Malar Jsee more from them

Publication Website: https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/

Volume: 16

Extent: 281

Issue Date: 2017-07-10

pages:281Identifiers

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-1912-y

Eissn: 1475-2875

Uuid: uuid:918a1fb5-d5b9-44ab-b62d-c6c65ad7db4d

Urn: uri:918a1fb5-d5b9-44ab-b62d-c6c65ad7db4d

Pubs-id: pubs:708114 Item Description

Type: journal-article;

Language: eng

Version: Publisher's versionKeywords: Malaria Plasmodium Vivax Chloroquine Efcacy Resistance Genotyping Diversity Transmission pvmdr1 Copy number Myanmar

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Author: Htun, MW - - - Mon, NCN - - - Aye, KM - - - Hlaing, CM - - - Kyaw, MP - - - Handayuni, I - - - Trimarsanto, H - - - Bustos, D - -

Source: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:918a1fb5-d5b9-44ab-b62d-c6c65ad7db4d



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