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Abstract: Motivated by the recent discovery of massive planets on wide orbits, wepresent a mechanism for the formation of such planets via disk fragmentation inthe embedded phase of star formation. In this phase, the forming diskintensively accretes matter from the natal cloud core and undergoes severalfragmentation episodes. However, most fragments are either destroyed or driveninto the innermost regions and probably onto the star due to angular momentumexchange with spiral arms, leading to multiple FU-Ori-like bursts and diskexpansion. Fragments that are sufficiently massive and form in the lateembedded phase when the disk conditions are less extreme may open a gap andevolve into giant planets on typical orbits of several tens to several hundredsof AU. For this mechanism to work, the natal cloud core must have sufficientmass and angular momentum to trigger the burst mode and also form extendeddisks of the order of several hundreds of AU. When mass loading from the natalcloud core diminishes and the main fragmentation phase ends, such extendeddisks undergo a transient episode of contraction and density increase, duringwhich they may give birth to a last and survivable set of giant planets on wideand relatively stable orbits.



Author: Eduard I. Vorobyov 1 and 2, Shantanu Basu 3 1 The Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax

Source: https://arxiv.org/



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