Cross-Racial Supervision: Critical Issues in the Supervisory RelationshipReport as inadecuate

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Canadian Journal of Counselling, v43 n4 p295-310 Oct 2009

This article reviews issues and findings from 13 research studies relative to cross-racial supervision. The research in this area indicates that a strong working alliance between the supervisor and student is more likely to happen when supervisors are culturally responsive and competent. However, in order to better appreciate the nature and scope of cross-racial supervision, future research needs to increase sample sizes and include the perspective of supervisors and students within the studies. Moreover, researchers should give greater attention to the development of instruments they utilize in their studies to ensure reliability and validity of these measures.

Descriptors: Supervisor Supervisee Relationship, Racial Relations, Students, Supervisors, Research, Cultural Relevance, Competence, Research Problems, Sample Size, Measures (Individuals), Reliability, Validity

Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. 223 Colonnade Road South Suite 114, Ottawa, ON K2E 7K3, Canada. e-mail: info[at]; Web site:

Author: Schroeder, Meadow; Andrews, Jac J. W.; Hindes, Yvonne L.


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