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Abstract: The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system isequally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption,the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statisticalthermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmanndistribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Basedon the effective Hamiltonian approach, we calculate the specific heat, the freeenergy and the entropy for an open system in steady states. Examples areillustrated and discussed.



Author: X. L. Huang, B. Cui, X. X. Yi

Source: https://arxiv.org/



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