Disparities in dietary intake and physical activity patterns across the urbanization divide in the Peruvian AndesReport as inadecuate




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International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

, 14:90

First Online: 11 July 2017Received: 09 February 2017Accepted: 29 June 2017

Abstract

BackgroundDiet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru.

MethodsWe compared diet and activity in 1005 503 urban, 502 rural participants via a lifestyle questionnaire. We then recruited an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 50 25 urban, 25 rural participants to further characterize diet and activity. Among these participants, diet composition and macronutrient intake was assessed by three non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity was assessed using Omron JH-720itc pedometers.

ResultsAmong 1005 participants, we found that urban residents consumed protein-rich foods, refined grains, sugary items, and fresh produce more frequently than rural residents. Among the 50 subsample participants, urban dwellers consumed more protein 47 vs. 39 g; p = 0.05, more carbohydrates 280 vs. 220 g; p = 0.03, more sugary foods 98 vs. 48 g, p = 0.02 and had greater dietary diversity 6.4 vs 5.8; p = 0.04. Rural subsample participants consumed more added salt 3.1 vs 1.7 g, p = 0.006 and tended to consume more vegetable oil. As estimated by pedometers, urban subsample participants burned fewer calories per day 191 vs 270 kcal, p = 0.03.

ConclusionsAlthough urbanization is typically thought to increase consumption of fat, sugar and salt, our 24-h recall results were mixed and showed lower levels of obesity in rural Puno were not necessarily indicative of nutritionally-balanced diets. All subsample participants had relatively traditional lifestyles low fat intake, limited consumption of processed foods and frequent walking that may play a role in chronic disease outcomes in this region.

KeywordsNutrition transition 24-h recall Urbanization Overweight Low- and middle income countries Chronic diseases  Download fulltext PDF



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