Prognostic value of inflammation in prostate cancer progression and response to therapeutic: a critical reviewReport as inadecuate




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Journal of Inflammation

, 13:35

First Online: 25 November 2016Received: 01 September 2016Accepted: 17 November 2016

Abstract

Prostate is an immune-competent organ normally populated by inflammatory cells. Prostatic inflammation origin can be multi-factorial and there are some emerging evidences on its possible role as a factor involved in prostate cancer PC pathogenesis and progression.

This review critically analyzes the role of inflammation as a prognostic factor for progression and aggressiveness of PC. We verified the last 10 years literature data on the association between inflammation and PC aggressiveness, or PC response to therapies.

Several studies tried to correlate different inflammatory factors with the aggressiveness and metastatization of PC; all data sustain the role of inflammation in PC progression but they also produce confusion to identify a reliable clinical prognostic marker.

Data on patients submitted to radical prostatectomy RP showed that cases with marked intraprostatic tissue inflammation are associated with higher rate of biochemical progression; systemic inflammation markers appear to have a significant prognostic value.

Analyzing data on patients submitted to radiotherapy RT emerges a significant association between high neuthrophil to lymphocyte ratio NLR and decreased progression free survival and overall survival; also plateled to lymphocyte ratio PLR and C-reactive protein CRP have been proposed as significant prognostic factors for progression and overall survival.

In patients submitted to androgen deprivation therapy ADT, inflammation may drive castration resistant PC CRPC development by activation of STAT3 in PC cells. NLR has been proposed as independent predictor of overall survival in CRPC submitted to chemotherapy.

Most of data are focused on markers related to systemic inflammation such as NLR and CRP, more than specifically to chronic prostatic inflammation. The suggestion is that these inflammatory parameters, also if not specific for prostatic inflammation and possibly influenced by several factors other than PC, can integrate with established prognostic factors.

KeywordsProstate neoplasm Inflammation Radical prostatectomy Radiotherapy Hormone therapy AbbreviationsADTAndrogen deprivation therapy

ARAndrogen receptor

CRPC-reactive protein

CRPCCastration resistant PC

CSSCancer-specific survival

Fuc-HptFucosylation haptoglobin

mGPSmodified Glasgow Prognostic Score

MIFMigration inhibitory factor

NLRNeuthrophil to lymphocyte ratio

OSOverall survival

PCProstate cancer

PIAProstatic inflammatory atrophy

PINProstatic intraepithelial neoplasia

PLRPlateled to lymphocyte ratio

PSAProstate specific antigen

PSAProstate specific antigen

RPRadical prostatectomy

RTRadiotherapy

SENP1SUMO-specific protease 1

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Author: Alessandro Sciarra - Alessandro Gentilucci - Stefano Salciccia - Federico Pierella - Flavio Del Bianco - Vincenzo Gentile -

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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