The socio-economic determinants of infant mortality in Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 2011Report as inadecuate




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BMC Pediatrics

, 15:152

First Online: 12 October 2015Received: 21 September 2014Accepted: 01 October 2015

Abstract

BackgroundInfant mortality reflects not only the health of infants but societal well-being as a whole. This study explores distal socioeconomic and related proximate determinants of infant mortality and provides evidence for designing targeted interventions.

MethodsSurvival information on 5391 live born infants 2006–2010 was examined from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011. Bivariate logistic regression and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression approaches were performed to analyze the distal-socioeconomic and related proximate determinants of infant mortality.

ResultsSocio-economic distal determinants are important predictors for infant mortality. For example, in reference to infants of the richest class, the adjusted odds ratio of infant mortality was 1.66 95 % CI: 1.00–2.74 in middle class and 1.87 95 % CI: 1.14–3.08 in poorer class, respectively. Similarly, the populations of the Mountain ecological region had a higher odds ratio aOR =1.39, 95 % CI: 0.90–2.16 of experiencing infant mortality compared with the populations of the Terai plain region. Likewise, the population of Far-western development region had a higher adjusted odds ratio aOR =1.62, 95 % CI: 1.02–2.57 of experiencing infant mortality than the Western development region. Moreover, the association of proximate determinants with infant mortality was statistically significant. For example, in reference to size at birth, adjusted odds ratio of infant dying was higher for infants whose birth size, as reported by mothers, was very small aOR = 3.41, 95 % CI: 2.16–5.38 than whose birth size was average. Similarly, fourth or higher birth rank infants with a short preceding birth interval less than or equal to 2 years were at greater risk of dying aOR =1.74, 95 % CI: 1.16–2.62 compared to the second or third rank infants with longer birth intervals. A short birth interval of the second or the third rank infants also increased the odds of infant death aOR = 2.03, 95 % CI: 1.23–3.35.

ConclusionsSocioeconomic distal and proximate determinants are associated with infant mortality in Nepal. Infant mortality was higher in the poor and middle classes than the wealthier classes. Population of Mountain ecological region and Far western development region had high risk of infant mortality. Similarly, infant dying was higher for infants whose birth size, as reported by mothers, was very small and who has higher birth rank and short preceding birth interval. This study uniquely addresses both broader socioeconomic distal and proximate determinants side by side at the individual, household and community levels. For this, both comprehensive, long-term, equity-based public health interventions and immediate infant care programs are recommended.

KeywordsSocioeconomic factors Proximate determinants Infant mortality Nepal  Download fulltext PDF



Author: Khim Bahadur Khadka - Leslie Sue Lieberman - Vincentas Giedraitis - Laxmi Bhatta - Ganesh Pandey

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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