Characterization and annotation of Babesia orientalis apicoplast genomeReport as inadecuate




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Parasites and Vectors

, 8:543

First Online: 16 October 2015Received: 11 September 2015Accepted: 08 October 2015

Abstract

BackgroundBabesia orientalis is an obligate intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite of the buffalo Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758 transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus heamaphysaloides. It is the causative agent of water buffalo babesiosis, one of the most important pathogens of water buffalo in central and southern China. As a member of the phylum Apicomplexa, B. orientalis possesses a relatively independent and alga originated organelle the apicoplast. Apicoplasts in other apicomplexa parasites are involved in the biosynthesis of haem, fatty acids, iron-sulphur clusters and isoprenoids. Some of these metabolic pathways were shown to be essential for parasite survival, therefore can serve as potential drug targets.

Methods30 pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis unpublished data and by aligning reported apicoplast genomes of Babesia bovis and Theileria parva. Conventional PCRs was performed to obtain overlapped fragments to cover the whole apicoplast genome. Then the apicoplast genome of B.orientalis was sequenced, assembled and aligned with reported apicoplast genomes of B. bovis and T. parva. The obtained apicoplast genome was annotated by using Artemis and comparing with published apicomplexan apicoplast genomes. The SSU and LSU nucleotide sequences generated were used in a phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood implemented in MAGE 6.0.

ResultsWe have obtained and analyzed the complete genome sequence of the B. orientalis apicoplast. It consisted of a 33.2 kb circular DNA 78.9 % A + T. The apicoplast genome unidirectionally encodes one large and one small subunit ribosomal RNAs, 24 tRNA genes, 4 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase beta subunits rpoB, rpoC1, rpoC2a and rpoC2b, 17 ribosomal proteins, one EF-Tu elongation factor, 2 Clp protease chaperones, and 14 hypothetical proteins. In addition, it includes two copies of the clpC gene. The structure and organization of the B. orientalis apicoplast genome are most similar to those of the B. bovis apicoplast.

ConclusionsThis is the first report of the complete sequence of the B. orientalis apicoplast genome. This information should be useful in the development of safe and efficient treatment against buffalo babesiosis.

KeywordBabesia orientalis Apicoplast Comparative analysis Genome Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s13071-015-1158-x contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Yuan Huang - Lan He - Jinfang Hu - Pei He - Junwei He - Long Yu - Ngabu Malobi - Yanqin Zhou - Bang Shen - JunLong Zhao

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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