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AIDS Research and Therapy

, 12:36

First Online: 11 November 2015Received: 19 May 2015Accepted: 29 October 2015

Abstract

The development of HIV related pulmonary arterial hypertension PAH reduces the probability of survival by half as compared with HIV-infected individuals without HIV related PAH. HIV infected patients have a greater incidence of PAH compared to general population and have a 2500-fold increased risk of developing PAH. It is therefore important to have a recent overview of the problem in Africa, the most HIV affected part of the world 70 % of all HIV infection in the world. First, we discussed the epidemiology of HIV-related PAH in Africa. Second, the current understanding of the HIV-related PAH pathogenesis has been covered. Third, role of highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV-related PAH has been revisited. There are few data concerning epidemiology of HIV related pulmonary hypertension in Africa leading to necessity to conduct further prospective large studies. The prevalence of PAH among HIV infected people in Africa varies from 5 to 13 %. The prevalence of HIV-related PAH in Africa is notably high compared to those in developed countries and in general population. The pathogenesis of PAH is clearly complex, and probably results from the interaction of multiple modulating genes with environmental factors. The physiopathology includes cytokines secretion increase which induces dysregulation of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell growth and imbalance of endogenous vasodilators and constrictors; HIV viral proteins which induces vascular oxidative stress, smooth myocyte proliferation and migration, and endothelial injury and genetic predisposition due to some major histocompatibility complex alleles, particularly HDL-DR6 and HLA-DR5. Histologically, HIV related PAH has the same characteristics with other types PAH. Antiretroviral therapy have a beneficial effect on the outcome of HIV related pulmonary hypertension, but it lacks evidence from large prospective studies.

KeywordsHIV AIDS Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Africa Antiretroviral therapy AbbreviationsBMPR2bone morphogenic protein receptor 2

Gp120glycoprotein 120

HAARThighly active antiretroviral therapy

HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus

Nefnegative factor

PAHpulmonary arterial hypertension

PHpulmonary hypertension

SIVsimian immunodeficiency virus

Tattranscription proteins

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Author: Jean Joel R. Bigna - Paule Sandra D. Sime - Sinata Koulla-Shiro

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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