Transition to annual life history coincides with reduction in cell cycle speed during early cleavage in three independent clades of annual killifishReport as inadecuate




Transition to annual life history coincides with reduction in cell cycle speed during early cleavage in three independent clades of annual killifish - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

EvoDevo

, 5:32

First Online: 22 September 2014Received: 16 June 2014Accepted: 30 July 2014

Abstract

BackgroundAnnual killifishes inhabit temporary ponds and their embryos survive the dry season encased in the mud by entering diapause, a process that arrests embryonic development during hostile conditions. Annual killifishes are present within three clades distributed in Africa one East and one West of the Dahomey gap and South America. Within each of these phylogenetic clades, a non-annual clade is sister taxon to a annual clade and therefore represent an example of convergent evolution.

Early cleavage of teleost embryos is characterized by a very fast cell cycle 15-30 minutes and lack of G1 and G2 phases. Here, we decided to investigate rates of early cleavage in annual killifishes. In addition, we specifically tested whether also annual killifish embryos lack G1 and G2 phases.

ResultsWe used time lapse brightfield microscopy to investigate cell division kinetics during the first developmental stages of annual- and non-annual species belonging to the three different phylogenetic clades. Annual killifishes of all three clades showed cleavage times significantly longer when compared to their non-annual sister taxa average 35 min vs. average 75 min. Using FUCCI fluorescent imaging of the cell cycle after microinjection in the annual species Nothobranchius furzeri, we demonstrate that the first 5 division are synchronous and do not show a G1 phase. Cell cycle synchronization is lost after the 5th cleavage division.

ConclusionsOur results show, for the first time, that cell cycle rate during cleavage, a trait thought to be rather evolutionary conserved can undergo convergent evolutionary change in response to variations in life-history.

KeywordsNothobranchius Early development Segmentation Life history evolution Midblastula transition Imaging Diapause AbbreviationsFUCCIFluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator

RTRoom temperature.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-2041-9139-5-32 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Luca Dolfi - Roberto Ripa - Alessandro Cellerino

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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