Effect of orthodontic forces on cytokine and receptor levels in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic reviewReport as inadecuate




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Progress in Orthodontics

, 15:65

First Online: 09 December 2014Received: 10 September 2014Accepted: 11 November 2014

Abstract

This systematic review aimed to generate evidence on role of potent markers of inflammation cytokines, chemokines, their associated receptors and antagonists following the application of orthodontic forces. Subsequent to registration with PROSPERO, literature search followed a predetermined search strategy to key databases along with hand search HS. Seventy-seven articles from PubMed P, 637 from Scopus S, 51 from Embase E, and 3 from hand search HS were identified. A total of 39 articles were shortlisted that met strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment. Each study was evaluated for participant characteristics, study design, oral hygiene regimen, and gingival crevicular fluid GCF handling. Among these studies, biomarkers in the order of frequency were interleukin IL-1β N = 21, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α N = 10, IL-8,IL-6N=8, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RANKL N = 7, monocyte chemoattractant protein MCP-1 N = 3, IL-2 N=4, IL-4, IL-10, RANTES N = 2, IL-1, IL-5, IL-1α, IP-10, osteopontin OPN N = 1 and receptors and their antagonists in the order of osteoprotegerin OPG N = 8, IL-1RA N = 5, and RANK N = 1. Results revealed an immediate release of inflammatory bone-resorptive mediators, IL-1β and TNF-α, where IL-1β increased as early as 1 min to 1 h reaching peak at 24 h while TNF-α increased at 1 h or 1 day. This was accompanied by a fall in bone-protective mediator OPG levels at 1 h and 24 h after orthodontic force application. Continuous forces were accompanied by a decrease in mediator levels after attaining peak levels most commonly at 24 h while repeated activations in interrupted force upregulated their secretion. Significant correlations of IL-1β levels with pain intensity, rate of orthodontic tooth movement OTM and of activity index AI IL-1β-IL-1RA with velocity of tooth movement and growth status of individuals have also been deduced. A greater AI and RANKL-OPG ratio was seen in juveniles as compared to adults or non-growers that were associated with faster rate of OTM in juveniles. None of the studies addressed the effect of estrous cycle in female subjects. Lack of homogeneity in several parameters calls for a better controlled research on the biology of OTM.

KeywordsGCF Cytokines Chemokines Receptors IL-1β RANK-RANKL OPG Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s40510-014-0065-6 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Priyanka Kapoor - Om Prakash Kharbanda - Nitika Monga - Ragini Miglani - Sunil Kapila

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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