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Nutrition Journal

, 12:126

First Online: 12 September 2013Received: 05 February 2013Accepted: 10 June 2013

Abstract

Background and objectivesAdequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age WRA are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation PRECONCEPT being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.

MethodsDietary intakes were determined for 4983 WRA who participated in the baseline survey using a previously validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that was administered by trained field workers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with energy and macronutrient intakes.

ResultsA disproportionate number of energy came from starches, primarily rice. Carbohydrate, fat and protein constituted 65.6%, 19.5% and 14.8% of total energy, respectively. Fat intake was below recommended levels in 56.5% of respondents, but carbohydrate intakes were above recommended level in 54.6%. Only 0.1% and 5.2% of WRA achieved adequate intake of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Multivariate linear regression revealed that low education, low socioeconomic status, and food insecurity were significant predictors of reduced total energy intake, reduced energy from protein and fat, and greater energy from carbohydrates. Logistic regression confirmed that inadequate macronutrient intake was more common among the poor, food insecure, and less educated.

ConclusionsImbalanced dietary intakes among underprivileged women reflect lack of dietary diversity. Nutrition programs should be linked with social development, poverty reduction, education programs and behavior change counseling in order to improve the nutritional status of WRA in Vietnam.

KeywordsFood frequency questionnaire Food consumption Macronutrient intakes Thai Nguyen Vietnam Women of reproductive age  Download fulltext PDF



Author: Phuong H Nguyen - Garrett Strizich - Alyssa Lowe - Hieu Nguyen - Hoa Pham - Truong V Truong - Son Nguyen - Reynaldo Mart

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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