Breast and gynecologic cancer-related extremity lymphedema: a review of diagnostic modalities and management optionsReport as inadecuate




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World Journal of Surgical Oncology

, 11:237

First Online: 22 September 2013Received: 13 May 2013Accepted: 05 September 2013

Abstract

Lymphedema remains a poorly understood entity that can occur after lymphadenectomy. Herein, we will review the pathogenesis of lymphedema, diagnostic modalities and the natural history of extremity involvement. We will review the incidence of upper extremity lymphedema in patients treated for breast malignancies and lower extremity lymphedema in those treated for gynecologic malignancy. Finally, we will review traditional treatment modalities for lymphedema, as well as introduce new surgical treatment modalities that are under active investigation.

KeywordsLymphedema Vascularized lymph node transfer Lymphography Lymphadenectomy Malignancy Cancer surgery AbbreviationsALNDAxillary lymph node dissection

BMIBody mass index

CDPTComplex decongestive physiotherapy

LELLower extremity lymphedema

MLDManual lymphatic drainage

PLNDPelvic lymph node dissection

SNPSingle nucleotide polymorphism

UELUpper extremity lymphedema

VLNVascularized lymph node.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1477-7819-11-237 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Pankaj Tiwari - Michelle Coriddi - Ritu Salani - Stephen P Povoski

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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