Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical mapsReport as inadecuate

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Carbon Balance and Management

, 8:10

First Online: 26 October 2013Received: 01 July 2013Accepted: 17 October 2013


BackgroundMapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution 500 m – 1000 m pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD+. Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by the same spaceborne LiDAR dataset providing systematic forest height and canopy structure estimates, but use different ground datasets for calibration and different spatial modelling methodologies. Here, we compare these two maps to each other, to the FAO’s Forest Resource Assessment FRA 2010 country-level data, and to a high resolution 100 m biomass map generated for a portion of the Colombian Amazon.

ResultsWe find substantial differences between the two maps, in particular in central Amazonia, the Congo basin, the south of Papua New Guinea, the Miombo woodlands of Africa, and the dry forests and savannas of South America. There is little consistency in the direction of the difference. However, when the maps are aggregated to the country or biome scale there is greater agreement, with differences cancelling out to a certain extent. When comparing country level biomass stocks, the two maps agree with each other to a much greater extent than to the FRA 2010 estimates. In the Colombian Amazon, both pantropical maps estimate higher biomass than the independent high resolution map, but show a similar spatial distribution of this biomass.

ConclusionsBiomass mapping has progressed enormously over the past decade, to the stage where we can produce globally consistent maps of aboveground biomass. We show that there are still large uncertainties in these maps, in particular in areas with little field data. However, when used at a regional scale, different maps appear to converge, suggesting we can provide reasonable stock estimates when aggregated over large regions. Therefore we believe the largest uncertainties for REDD+ activities relate to the spatial distribution of biomass and to the spatial pattern of forest cover change, rather than to total globally or nationally summed carbon density.

KeywordsAboveground biomass Carbon Data inter-comparison Maxent Random forest REDD REDD+ Remote sensing Tropical forests UNFCCC Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1750-0680-8-10 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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