Effect of aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers on the lung in mouseReport as inadecuate




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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

, 10:64

First Online: 21 December 2013Received: 28 August 2013Accepted: 17 December 2013

Abstract

BackgroundUltrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized -white dust.- However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice.

MethodsAn ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber 0.765 m, ventilation ratio 11.5 m-hr, male ICR mice 10-week-old were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid BALF were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy.

ResultsParticles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg-m, number concentration of 5.0 ± 1.1 × 10-cm, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung.

ConclusionThese results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects.

AbbreviationsBALFBronchoalveolar lavage fluid

cDNAComplementary DNA

EDSEnergy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer

FE-SEMField emission-type scanning electron microscope

GOGene ontology

ICP-MSInductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

ROReverse osmotic

TDSTotal dissolved solids

TEMTransmission electron microscope.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1743-8977-10-64 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Masakazu Umezawa, Keisuke Sekita contributed equally to this work.

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Author: Masakazu Umezawa - Keisuke Sekita - Ken-ichiro Suzuki - Miyoko Kubo-Irie - Rikio Niki - Tomomi Ihara - Masao Sugamata - Ken

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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