Experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of key Anopheles species from the Brazilian AmazonReport as inadecuate




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Malaria Journal

, 12:460

First Online: 21 December 2013Received: 20 October 2013Accepted: 17 December 2013

Abstract

BackgroundAnopheles darlingi is the major malaria vector in countries located in the Amazon region. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles albitarsis s.l. are also proven vectors in this region. Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were found infected with Plasmodium vivax; however, their status as vectors is not yet well defined. Knowledge of susceptibility of Amazon anopheline populations to Plasmodium infection is necessary to better understand their vector capacity. Laboratory colonization of An. darlingi, the main Amazon vector, has proven to be difficult and presently An. aquasalis is the only available autonomous colony.

MethodsLarvae of An. darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. and An. triannulatus s.l. were collected in the field and reared until adult stage. Adults of An. aquasalis were obtained from a well-established colony. Mosquitoes were blood-fed using a membrane-feeding device containing infected blood from malarial patients.

The infection of the distinct Anopheles species was evaluated by the impact variance of the following parameters: a parasitaemia density; b blood serum inactivation of the infective bloodmeal; c influence of gametocyte number on infection rates and number of oocysts. The goal of this work was to compare the susceptibility to P. vivax of four field-collected Anopheles species with colonized An. aquasalis.

ResultsAll Anopheles species tested were susceptible to P. vivax infection, nevertheless the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the infection intensity measured by oocyst number varied significantly among species. Inactivation of the blood serum prior to mosquito feeding increased infection rates in An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l., but was diminished in An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis. There was a positive correlation between gametocyte density and the infection rate in all tests Z = −8.37; p < 0.001 but varied among the mosquito species. Anopheles albitarsis s.l., An. aquasalis and An. nuneztovari s.l. had higher infection rates than An. darlingi.

ConclusionAll field-collected Anopheles species, as well as colonized An. aquasalis are susceptible to experimental P. vivax infections by membrane feeding assays. Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis are very susceptible to P. vivax infection. However, colonized An. aquasalis mosquitoes showed the higher infection intensity represented by infection rate and oocyst numbers. This study is the first to characterize experimental development of Plasmodium infections in Amazon Anopheles vectors and also to endorse that P. vivax infection of colonized An. aquasalis is a feasible laboratory model.

KeywordsPlasmodium vivax Anopheles Malaria Membrane feeding assay Infection rate Oocysts Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1475-2875-12-460 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Claudia M Rios-Velásquez - Keillen M Martins-Campos - Rejane C Simões - Thiago Izzo - Edineuza V dos Santos - Felipe A

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