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Environmental Sciences Europe

, 23:38

First Online: 06 December 2011Received: 15 July 2011Accepted: 06 December 2011

Abstract

Perfluorinated compounds PFCs have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon-fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of -persistent organic pollutants-. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and the toxicodynamics acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds.

KeywordsPFCs PFOA PFOS toxicology Abbreviations8-dG8-hydroxydesoxyguanosine

AFCEFSA Panel on food additives: flavourings: processing aids and materials in contact with food

ALTalanine aminotransferase

APFOammonium perfluorooctanoate

ASTaspartate aminotransferase

BfRBundesinstitut für Risikobewertung Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

BMIbody mass index

BWbody weight

CARconstitutive androstane receptor

COTCommittee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food: Consumer Products and the Environment

ECFelectrochemical fluorination

EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority

FDAUS Food and Drug Administration

FOSAperfluorooctyl sulfonamide

FOSEperfluorooctanesulfonamide ethanol

FT4free thyroxine

FTOHfluorotelomer alcohol

GDgestational day

GJICgap junction intercellular communication

HDLhigh density lipoprotein

LADDlifetime average daily dose

LC50lethal concentration with 50% lethality

LD50lethal dose with 50% lethality

L-FABPliver type fatty acid binding protein

LHluteinizing hormone

LOAELlowest observed adverse effect level

L-PFOAlinear PFOA

L-PFOSlinear PFOS

MTEmore typical exposure

N or nnumber of samples

n.a.not analyzed

n.d.not detected

n.r.not reported

N-EtFOSA N-ethylperfluorooctyl sulfonamide

N-EtFOSE N-ethylperfluorooctyl sulfonamide ethanol

NHANESNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NOAELno observed adverse effect level

OATorganic anion transporter

OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PCBpolychlorinated biphenyls

PFBAperfluorobutanoic acid

PFBSperfluorobutanesulfonic acid

PFCsperfluorinated compounds-polyfluorinated compounds

PFCAperfluorinated carboxylic acids

PFDAperfluorodecanoic acid

PFDoAperfluorododecanoic acid

PFHpAperfluoroheptanoic acid

PFHxAperfluorohexanoic acid

PFHxSperfluorohexanesulfonic acid

PFNAperfluorononanoic acid

PFOdeprotonated PFOA

PFOAperfluorooctanoic acid

PFOSperfluorooctanesulfonic acid

PFPAperfluorinated phosphonic acid

PFPeAperfluoropentanoic acid

PFTDAperfluorotetradecanoic acid

PFUnAperfluoroundecanoic acid

POPpersistent organic pollutants

POSFperfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride

PPARperoxisome proliferator activated receptor

PTFEpolytetrafluoroethene

PXRpregnane × receptor

RMEreasonable maximum exposure

ROSreactive oxygen species

SMRstandard mortality ratio

SODsuperoxide dismutase

T3tri-odo thyronine

T4thyroxine

T-AOCtotal antioxidant capacity

TDItolerable daily intake

TSHthyroid stimulating hormone

UBAUmweltbundesamt German Environmental Protection Agency

US EPAUnited States Environmental Protection Agency.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-2190-4715-23-38 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Thorsten Stahl - Daniela Mattern - Hubertus Brunn

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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